Much like Arnold Schwarzenegger’s character in the movie ‘Twins’, the walkie-talkie can claim to have many fathers. However, one of the most prominent names in the debate (and maybe the one with the single strongest claim to having invented the walkie-talkie) is Canadian/American inventor Al Gross.

The son of Romanian immigrants, Al Gross was born in Toronto, Canada in 1918, but his parents moved to Cleveland, Ohio, USA when he was quite young. Whilst on a steamboat trip across Lake Erie, the 9-year-old Gross encountered radio technology for the first time and, in so doing, ignited a passion within him that would change the world.

How passionate was he? By age 12, Gross had turned his parents’ basement into a radio centre. The bright young man would visit junkyards and salvage any material he thought he could use. Four years later –aged 16- Gross was awarded an amateur radio license, which was still in effect at the time of his death in 2000.

At the age of 18, Gross enrolled in the Case School of Applied Sciences. At the time, radio frequencies above 100MHz were relatively unexplored territory. Gross wanted to see exactly what could be done with them. He wanted to create a mobile, lightweight, handheld transceiver, using those uncharted frequencies. In 1938, he did just that, patenting the two-way radio, or ‘walkie-talkie’. He was just 20 years old.

War arrived on American shores in 1941 with the attack on Pearl Harbour. America scrambled to mobilize its armed forces and take advantage of any/all new technology that could aid the struggle against the Axis powers. The US Office of Strategic Services (OSS) – a forerunner to the CIA – tapped Gross to create an air-to-ground communications’ system. The system Gross designed employed Hertzian radio waves and was almost impossible for the enemy to monitor, even when allied planes were in enemy airspace. Gross’ system proved incredibly successful (so much so, that it was not declassified until 1976).

After the war, the inventor turned entrepreneur and founded the Citizens Radio Corporation, which took advantage of the first frequencies designated for personal use. His company was the first to receive FCC approval for use with the new ‘citizens’ band’. He licensed radios to other companies and supplied units to the Coast Guard, amongst others.

Then, in 1949 came another amazing discovery. Gross invented and patented the telephone pager. He invented the system with doctors in mind, but the medical community was (amazingly) slow to respond to this new technology. Only New York’s Jewish Hospital saw the potential of the pager as a life-saving device, when they implemented it in 1950.

Throughout the 1950’s, Gross, ever the pioneer, fought hard to garner interest for his newest idea – a mobile telephone. It took him eight years to get mobile telephony, as a concept, off the ground. Talk about being ahead of the curve!

Unfortunately, many of Gross’ best ideas were so far ahead of said curve, that his patents ran out before he could garner the profit his genius deserved. Had he earned the money eventually generated by CB radio, pagers and cellular phones, he would have died an extremely rich man. However, it was not to be.

Gross invented a lot throughout the years, but nothing brought him the amount of money that he potentially could have made from his earlier inventions. However, Gross was able to make a comfortable living, spending the 1960’s working for large corporations as a specialist in communications systems. 

In the 1990’s, he was employed as a Senior Staff Engineer for Orbital Sciences Corporation in Arizona, where he worked on satellite communications, military equipment and aerospace technology.

As an older man, Gross got the most joy from visiting local schools and giving presentations. He took extra pleasure in inspiring the next generation of scientists, engineers and thinkers.

In April of the year 2000, Al Gross (who had garnered numerous awards throughout his career, far too many to write about here) was honoured to receive the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award. He passed away eight months later in December 2000.

Gross never actually retired and was still working at the age of 82, a restless paragon of forward thinking, innovation and tireless imagination.

SOURCE

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/gross.html

Asked by Hiromi in Osaka

Hi Hiromi, How’s life in Japan? I’d love to visit one day, but until then, here’s your answer…

It all depends on how much you sweat. Yes, I know that’s a little bit indelicate of me, but unfortunately it happens to be true. I’ve read many, many customer reviews of otherwise fine and good headsets that claim to be designed for joggers, but that conk out the first time they get significantly wet…

Headsets designed for jogging are often created so that they won’t fall out of your ears as you run, with almost no concern placed on how much you may sweat during the run. Some people sweat a lot and some sweat very little. In either instance, your sweat level needs to be a factor in your purchasing decision (and there’s no nicer way to say it than that!)

Then, another factor to consider is how much the headset will isolate you from your surroundings as you run. Noise cancellation headsets might do a superlative job if you’re running past a noisy construction site, but they aren’t going to be much help in the wake of oncoming traffic. Again, it comes down to individual choice. Some runners subscribe to the Linford Christie ‘bullet from a gun’ mentality, whilst others simply enjoy a bit of exercise, but also like to stay aware of what’s going on around them.

It is also misleading to assume that a branded headset from a sportswear manufacturer is in any way superior to one designed by a trusted electronics firm. In many/most instances, the opposite is actually true.

Sadly, even so called ‘sweat resistant’ headsets are often anything but and there isn’t a lot you can actually do to get your money back. Your best bet, if you ask me, is to buy a mid-range headset, use it specifically for jogging/going to the gym and don’t expect it to last for very long. If it performs badly, chalk it up to experience and buy a different headset, if it lasts for a decent period of time, then replace it with a similar model, or else the same one again.

I’ll be honest; every so often I get one of these questions that I find hard to answer, as no amount of research will really help. Type in the name of any ‘Bluetooth Headset for Jogging’ into Amazon (or whatever the Japanese equivalent of Amazon may be) and you’ll read just as many complaints in the reviews as praises.

Due to this, I’m reluctant to name specific models, because they may not actually work for you. I’d hate to say, “Oh, this headset works really well”, only to have you write back “Does it b*llocks!”. I have personally reviewed several pairs of headphones online (which you can view by clicking HERE), but not any Bluetooth headsets (to the best of my recollection), so I’m afraid that’s all the advice I can give you on this one!

Asked by Barbara from Basingstoke

 

Hi Barbara from Basingstoke (I like that, it has a nice ring to it), 

I presume you mean to ask me how people communicated over long distances, because otherwise the answer would simply be ‘they talked to each other, just as they do today’. I’ll give you the benefit of the doubt, but please be more specific in future! (Kidding!)

OK, so 100 years ago, in 1914, the telephone was still in its infancy, relatively speaking. 99 years ago, Thomas Watson made the first coast-to-coast phone call in America, so that should give you some idea of where the telephone was, development wise.

However, the invention had been patented since 1876 and 1877 had seen the first long-distance phone call placed. But by and large, telephones were not an overly common part of people’s lives the way they are now.

More common was the telegraph, which had been knocking around for a while by then. People in official positions tended to use that, but it wouldn’t have been a fixture of regular people’s houses.

Far more common than telephone or telegraph was the postal service. In 1914, if you wanted to contact a friend, relative, or loved one, you wrote to them. The working classes were better educated than at any other time in history (up to that point) and literacy was improving (although it certainly wasn’t at the near-ubiquitous level of today). Letters took a long time to arrive by today’s standards, so they tended to be longer and more absorbing than, say, a Facebook chat is today. In fact, intellectuals, authors and politicians would often engage themselves in long-winded and exhaustive intellectual contests via thorough, essay-length correspondences.

Another option would have been to speak via mutual acquaintances. Literature of the period frequently involves friends using a mutual friend in order to carry on a long-distance discussion and it is my understanding that this was quite a common practice. Interestingly, this may very well have shaped the development of certain customs in society (such as ‘good manners’ vs. ‘bad manners’ regarding correspondence etiquette). With our communication methods of today being so vastly different, it remains to be seen how our society will come to reflect this. 

The truth is that shopping centres (or ‘malls’ if we’re being American about it), can seriously improve an area’s local economy. It is basic economics really, if the supply is less than the demand, then there is profit to be made. I expect a percentage, Deepak!

OK, I’ve thought a bit about this one and, I reckon your best bet would be an affordable, yet high performance unit like a Motorola DP3400 or similar. I suggested the DP3400 because it a) it won’t bankrupt the (hypothetical) project, b) it is very versatile and c) it is exceptionally easy to use (user training takes, on average, about 20 minutes).

A DP3400 offers use of 32 channels, functions as both analogue and digital and is available in UHF or VHF versions. In short, this radio is perfect for security, health and safety or even customer service.

I’ve recently found the ‘Case Studies’ sections on the Motorola website (you can probably tell by my other pieces this month), but the DP3400 has a case that’s exactly like yours. For what its worth, here’s what they said about it.

“Digital two-way radio was chosen to provide a secure, discreet communicationsystem with no risk of transmissions being compromised by eavesdroppers. The Centre’s local Motorola Authorised Dealer demonstrated how  MOTOTRBO digital radios could provide greater coverage and improved audio clarity than analogue and enable users to make both one-to-one and group calls. The increased battery power would extend battery life by up to 40%, enabling the radios to be used throughout the entire 11-hour trading day without recharging”.

That sounds pretty good to me. In any instance, you keep dreaming and don’t let anyone discourage you. Find out what it takes to be an…um, ‘shopping centre design person’ and just go for it! 

I do not know how you came here because you read it on social media, twitter, facebook, google +, stumble upon or anywhere else. thankyou for coming and I hope you enjoy reading this as much as I did.

All around us, the wireless world is going digital. But organizations have questions about this breakthrough technology. To provide them with answers, BearCom and Motorola Solutions teamed up to create our Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide: “Five Reasons to Migrate to Digital Two-Way Radios.”

“A ‘smart’ revolution is transforming two-way radios,” the guide begins. “Digital technology is opening the door to a host of useful web-based applications for two-way radios, even as it enhances capacity, coverage, audio quality, and battery life.”

Available as a free download from BearCom.com, the guide details how digital two-way radios offer additional functionality, greater efficiency, enhanced coverage, improved audio quality, and extended battery life compared to analog radios. It explores the capabilities and benefits of the latest radios, the differences between analog and digital technologies, and the process for making a smooth transition to digital.

“There are plenty of exciting new digital two-way radio products available,” reads the cover letter from BearCom President & CEO Jerry Denham. “This new Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide is the latest tool we’ve developed to assist organizations around the country as they harness the power of digital performance to improve their communications capabilities.”

The guide includes details on the MOTOTRBO line of digital two-way radios from Motorola Solutions and the new Motorola CP200d, which was made available through BearCom last summer. In developing the CP200d, Motorola Solutions was able to retain the simplicity and durability that have helped make the Motorola CP200 analog model popular across a wide range of industries.

The guide also answers frequently asked questions, such as:
Why should we go digital?
How are apps useful in two-way radios?
Will analog radios become extinct?
Are my analog two-way radio accessories compatible with digital models?
How can I get the best value when selecting digital two-way radios?

- See more at: http://blog.bearcom.com/2014/01/new-analog-to-digital-migration-guide-helps-users-take-advantage-of-the-latest-technologies/#sthash.hoMbIaZV.dpuf

My basic review of a new two way radio it starts up well, looks rather cool, is simple to run and very energy efficient, the two way radio is a top quality product. I’m happy I purchased it, read further below.

The construction industry is on a roll, according to experts who project construction starts will be up 9% this year, on top of last year’s 5% gain. The biggest increases in activity will be in single-family housing, commercial building, and multifamily housing. Getting all that construction work done as efficiently and safely as possible will take top-floor communications capabilities, and that’s where two-way radios come in.

Two-way radios have long been popular tools on construction sites, and it’s easy to see why. The one-to-many communications device makes it possible to alert entire groups of people to situations and facilitate their input on resolutions. Radio communications are immediate, which makes for quicker problem solving. Radios allow workers to be heard in noisy environments, and speaker-microphones keep their hands free for essential tasks.

Plenty of two-way radios are very easy to use—just push to talk and release to listen. Many are designed especially for construction’s harsh work environments and can last for years. Those that are submersible in water not only come through wet conditions, they can be cleaned with water, which extends their useful lives.
The bottom line? If construction workers aren’t walking back and forth across large job sites looking for answers, groups can be more efficient. More efficient groups often need less manpower. They can also use their improved communications capabilities to more swiftly identify and address safety concerns.

Which radios do construction organizations choose? That often depends on the size of the organization or the complexity of the project. Smaller, independent contractors are focused on coordinating their foremen, employees, and subcontractors. They are most likely to rely on simple but rugged talk-and-listen portable units, like the commercial-grade radios from Motorola Solutions.

One of the most popular commercial two-way radios ever released, the Motorola CP200 is lightweight, durable, and easy to use. It is now available in a digital version, the Motorola CP200d. The CP200d retains the radio’s simplicity and reliability, and the form factor is virtually the same. The new model is backward compatible, so it uses the same chargers, batteries, and speaker-microphones. It is also being made available in a digital-capable version that can be converted later from analog to digital operation.

Leaders of mid-size construction firms want to keep in touch with their construction crews even as they leave construction sites for supplies and move between sites. They also want to make sure crews can stay in contact with one another. Such firms tend to look for options that include the Motorola HT Series portable and CDM Series mobile two-way radios. These more sophisticated radios pave the way for trunking, which makes possible communications across a much wider area.

The largest construction organizations want to take voice communications to the next level and to integrate voice and data. Doing this requires digital technology and the industry-leading MOTOTRBO line from Motorola Solutions. Digital two-way radios have a host of advantages over analog models, including improved audio quality, enhanced clarity throughout the coverage range, greater efficiency, extended battery life, and applications that add functionality.

One popular MOTOTRBO model among construction firms is the Motorola XPR6350. It features one-touch calling, quick text messaging, and enhanced call management, making it ideal for professionals.

From enhancing productivity and minimizing delays to improving worker safety and reducing operating costs, two-way radios have earned a permanent place on many a tool belt. The available options and features have never been better, no matter where radios are being put to work.

See more at: http://blog.bearcom.com/2014/02/two-way-radios-play-a-role-as-construction-industry-builds-momentum/#sthash.lxDQx6CA.dpuf

We all went to see Avatar, didn’t we? Everyone I know must have seen that movie at least once. Wasn’t the 3-D impressive? Be honest, who else was swatting the flies away with one hand whilst tucking into their popcorn with the other? I know I was. 

For some people, Avatar was the first 3-D film they went to see (mine was ‘The Final Destination’ for anybody interested) and now, not too much time has elapsed before we’re bringing digital 3-D TV into our homes. Here’s my point; as a person who has worked as a professional filmmaker, there is a certain magic to cinema. By which, I mean, THE cinema. The physical place, some of my happiest memories as a child are of being taken to the cinema to watch the latest blockbuster. 

Taking a film home to watch is a great idea, but then it becomes just a movie, it’s not an event. The cinema is a modern day theatre of marvels where amazing feats are performed by beautiful people. Pure escapism. 3-D helps that immensely. But at home? I’m wondering if we really need that in our own homes. 

Its not that it isn’t cool, far from it, in fact. Its just that, on a personal level, I equate the cinema with ‘Star Wars’ or ‘The Matrix’ the big effects and epic stories, when I watch movies at home, I settle down with ‘Evil Dead II’, Charlie Chaplin or maybe ‘Seven Samurai’ do those films need to be in 3-D? 

To make you feel a part of the fictional environment, all a film needs is a good script (I’m available by the way. Any takers? – That almost never works) Decent acting and a great director. Besides, who wants to be sitting at home wearing dork-glasses, or trying to make a cup of tea and spilling it everywhere when you forget to take the damn things off? Not me. I don’t really want to sit around and watch all my TV on a huge screen with surround sound and a picture that’s big enough to eat me. So, I think we should save the 3-D “Its coming right at me!” for the next blockbuster epic and leave the glasses there, too. 

What would you do if i stated I had found a Walkie talkie short article that is not only fascinating but informative as well? I knew you wouldn’t believe me, so here it is the informative, excellent and interesting editorial

Mobile push to talk pioneer Voxer has just released an update for Android that includes its brand new Easy Talk widget for Android users. The new widget allows you to quickly access your most important chats and listen to live and recorded voice messages. You can also send audio, texts or images right from the lock screen or home screen.

“Voxer’s goal is to facilitate instantaneous communication and make it easy for users to quickly contact each other, reducing the time it takes to send and receive messages,” the company said of the update in a press release. “This is especially important for businesses, where time saved on communication can lead to benefits like cost savings. The Easy Talk widget is designed to help users communicate faster, enabling them to send and receive messages without unlocking their Android device.”

“REPLACING TRADITIONAL TWO-WAY RADIOS AND OTHER COMMUNICATION DEVICES WITH VOXER”

Some features of the Easy Talk widget include:

  • Access from home or lock screen: Users have access to several Voxer features right from the widget, which includes listening and sending voice messages, texts and images.
  • Prioritize important chats: Users can select specific chats that are the most important to them, and add them to the widget. They can access these chats by tapping on the next and previous buttons within the widget.
  • Send and receive live audio: Voice messages can be streamed live for the chat that is visible on the widget, so the user can have constant access to voice messages, even when the Voxer app is not open on their device.
  • Headset integration: The widget streams live audio to headsets, so users can communicate via their headset for easy access.

“Our customers are replacing their traditional two-way radios and other communication devices with Voxer,” said Irv Remedios, head of product, Voxer. “With this widget, we can replicate the live characteristics of traditional PTT, in addition to other features that can help users communicate faster. Android users can organize their chats, providing easy access to the ones that are the most important. With Easy Talk, users can communicate faster than ever before.”

The Easy Talk widget is now available for Voxer Pro and Voxer Business customers with Android devices running 2.3.5 and above.

Read more at http://www.trutower.com/2014/04/23/voxer-push-to-talk-launches-easytalk-feature-android/#MAJCJ5urdE4lBJDi.99

The basis of the post is to make you consider what in life is significant and what does getting the new Radio really represent to us

The borough council approved the purchase of six radios to use with the recent emergency communications system updates to the police department at a cost of $27,000 at its Wednesday meeting.

Under new federal regulations, the county’s emergency management communications network must be converted to a narrowband frequency to make it more efficient. The county is in the process of complying with Federal Communications Commission-required upgrades to emergency communications.

The borough ordered six Motorola APX6000 radios from Green’s Communications, Pottsville, on Friday. Three radios will be placed in the cars and three are for officers to carry.

The radios could take four weeks to arrive, borough Manager Mike Lonergan said.

In other news, the council also voted to approve a proposal by the Exeter Ambulance Association, Berks County, for two Automated External Defibrillators.

The cost for the AEDs is $4,200. They will replace one for the police department that is at least 10 years old, Lonergan said.

Also at the meeting, Lonergan said he will apply for a $40,000 grant through the state Department of Conservation and Natural Resources for new playground equipment at Community Memorial Hall, mulch and other park maintenance.

The playground equipment that is in good shape, such as the jungle gym, merry-go-round and seesaw, would not need to be replaced. However, the swing set is about 20 years old and could be removed or relocated to another park in the borough, Lonergan said.

The deadline to apply for the grant is Wednesday, and the borough could know by the fall if the grant is awarded. A $20,000 match by the borough would be required and would be paid through by funds designated for recreation use.

In other council action, approval was granted for Lonergan to prepare a final agreement between the borough and Schuylkill County Municipal Authority for the supplemental operation and maintenance services for the borough water and wastewater systems after review by the borough solicitor Frank Tamulonis and an engineer from SCMA.

The cost to the borough for the service is $1,850 per month and would likely start this month. The borough previously gave approval to execute a memorandum of understanding with the authority to provide the aforementioned support.

The council also authorized Tamulonis to advertise an ordinance for declarations of taking or using eminent domain to obtain easements for the safe routes to schools project if necessary. The project would involve curbs and sidewalks from downtown Market Street to Blue Mountain Elementary East along Red Dale Road for a total of about 1,200 feet, Lonergan said.

The borough was awarded a $303,000 grant in 2009 through the Safe Routes to Schools Program through the state Department of Transportation.

“We do not anticipate the ordinance being necessary,” Lonergan said. However, if it is, the borough would compensate property owners.

 

From cultural events celebrating the diverse mosaic of British identity, to barnstorming rock n roll gigs, events management is a huge area to be involved in.

The term ‘event’ can be somewhat misleading, because technically everything is an event. Actually, when you look at it like that, maybe it isn’t so misleading after all…

When we use the term event, we could be talking about an indoor conference just as easily as a political rally. Athletic contests, art exhibitions, magic shows; if people attend it, it’s an event, and if it’s an event; it needs a manager.

With such events proving to be a booming industry in modern Britain, there’s never been a better time to be an event manager. However, no matter how good your management skills may be, there is one little device that you simply can’t do without.

Rugged, strong and reliable, the humble two-way radio is a staple of so many activities that it beggars belief. In order for a concert to go as planned, or that installation to be ‘just so’, a manager needs to be in constant contact with the staff who are working under her/him.

A key concern at any event is health and safety and, after that, security. With so many people attending, say, a conference, paramedics need to be on standby in case of any emergency. In addition, fire safety regulations need to be adhered to, as do any building laws that may be in effect.

As for security, in today’s troubled world, the sad truth is that there are a lot of disgruntled people out there, people who will stop at nothing to make their statement. Without dwelling on this terrible fact, we must merely make a solemn mental note that, without radios, it would be far harder for security teams to effectively police such large gatherings of Humanity.

People working backstage at music gigs, from venue staff to roadies, need to be kept abreast of things like weather issues, changes to schedule and ongoing security concerns; only radios have the power to achieve this with any degree of effectiveness.

Events management, then, is a constant challenge, but the smiling faces of the patrons make it all worthwhile.

Everybody from cleaners and vendors, to front office staff and fire marshals, needs to be within easy reach of management; two-way radios not only make this possible, they actually make it easy. More reliable than a phone, more practical than a middleman and far faster than a pager, the two-way radio is absolutely crucial to the success of any big event. 

For our next round of pictures we have, some funnies that have recently come up…..

 

 

 

 

 

thanks for looking!

Ham radio (so called because its operators were originally derided as being ‘hammy’ in the 19th century, when the technology first emerged) is a term that applies to any form of amateur radio broadcasting.

 

There are designated radio frequency spectra available solely for public use. Uses range from recreation to communication and the non-commercial exchange of ideas. ‘Hams’ take advantage of these frequencies in order to transmit any number of things More »

Boots Enjoys Future Proofed Communications in a Single Handset at National Stores Service Centre in Nottingham

Boots the Chemist is the United Kingdom’s leading health and beauty retailer. The company supplies its 2,600 outlets in the UK and Ireland from an 800,000 sq ft Stores Service Centre (SSC) in Nottingham. The SSC stocks thousands of

product lines and is set to handle Boots’ entire range by 2009. It operates 16 hours a day, six days a week and services many stores on an almost daily basis. More »

Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures.
One definition of communication is “any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person’s needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.”
Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver doesn’t have to be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver understands the sender’s message.
Communicating with others involves three primary steps:
Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings.
Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.
Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that a person can understand.
There are a variety of verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. These include body language, eye contact, sign language, haptic communication,and chronemics. Other examples are media content such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also defines the communication to include the display of text, Braille, tactile communication, large print, accessible multimedia, as well as written and plain language, human-reader, augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication, including accessible information and communication technology. Feedback is a critical component of effective communication.
Verbal communication
Human spoken and pictorial languages can be described as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated. The word “language” also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages seem to share certain properties although many of these include exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. Communication is the flow or exchange of information within people or a group of people.
Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Some forms of non verbal communication include chronemics, haptics, gesture, body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols, infographics, and tone of voice, as well as through an aggregate of the above. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. These include voice lesson quality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Research has shown that up to 55% of human communication may occur through non verbal facial expressions, and a further 38% through paralanguage. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form.
Oral communication
Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of meaning. Oral communication includes speeches, presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal communication. As a type of face-to-face communication, body language and choice tonality play a significant role, and may have a greater impact upon the listener than informational content. This type of communication also garners immediate feedback.
Business communication
A business can flourish only when all objectives of the organization are achieved effectively. For efficiency in an organization, all the people of the organization must be able to convey their message properly.
Written communication and its historical development
Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing progression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology, an emerging field of study.
The progression of written communication can be divided into three “information communication revolutions”:
# Written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs. The pictograms were made in stone, hence written communication was not yet mobile.
# The next step occurred when writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. with common alphabets. Communication became mobile.
# The final stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves of electromagnetic radiation and other electronic signals.
Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures, and evaluating enables collaboration and cooperation.
Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved through formulations, questions and answers, paraphrasing, examples, and stories of strategic talk. Written communication can be clarified by planning follow-up talks on critical written communication as part of the every-day way of doing business. A few minutes spent talking in the present will save valuable time later by avoiding misunderstandings in advance. A frequent method for this purpose is reiterating what one heard in one’s own words and asking the other person if that really was what was meant.
Effective communication
Effective communication occurs when a desired effect is the result of intentional or unintentional information sharing, which is interpreted between multiple entities and acted on in a desired way. This effect also ensures the messages are not distorted during the communication process. Effective communication should generate the desired effect and maintain the effect, with the potential to increase the effect of the message. Therefore, effective communication serves the purpose for which it was planned or designed. Possible purposes might be to elicit change, generate action, create understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view. When the desired effect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communication are explored, with the intention being to discover how the communication has been ineffective.
Barriers to effective human communication
Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message and intention of the message being conveyed which may result in failure of the communication process or an effect that is undesirable. These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness
This also includes a lack of expressing “knowledge-appropriate” communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient. More »

The tourism industry is a big one, with various holiday seasons bringing in huge revenues around the world, year in, year out. In some cases, tourism profits are actually vital to the survival of small towns and resort areas, as well as major factors in the host country’s GDP.

Approximately 30 Million people visit the UK from all over the world each year (and we don’t even get nice weather!). Drawn to our many sites of cultural interest, even more of historical interest, or just a slice on English country life, these tourists are actually a considerable part of our economy. More »